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Papers/Reports
  • Electric Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Savings, Expenditures, and Budgets (2014), November 2015
    A new study by IEI found that electric utility efficiency programs saved 155 TWh of electricity in 2014, enough to power 14.7 million homes for one year, and avoided the generation of 107 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions. The study also revealed that electric efficiency expenditures totaled nearly $7.3 nationwide in 2014, a 13-percent increase from 2013 levels. 
  • State Electric Efficiency Regulatory Frameworks, December 2014
    ​The Institute continues to track developments in performance incentives, cost recovery, and lost revenue recovery mechanisms for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. This resource summarizes these regulatory policy frameworks on a state-by-state basis and is updated periodically. Since the last update to the report in July 2013, Several states have updated their existing regulatory policies for energy efficiency, and one state (Mississippi) has significantly expanded the business environment to support investments in efficiency programs by electric utilities.
  • Utility-Scale Smart Meter Deployments: Building Block of the Evolving Grid, September 2014
    Developed by IEI, this report shows utility-scale smart meter deployments in the U.S. by state and lists projects by utility. This edition includes data on how utilities and customers are leveraging the benefits of smart meters. The report finds that U.S. utilities have installed 50 million smart meters nationwide as of July 2014.
  • Net Energy Metering: Subsidy Issues and Regulatory Solutions, September 2014
    As distributed generation (DG)  grows and comprises a larger share of the nation's power resources, it is critical that these resources are priced appropriately and that subsidies that support them are transparent to customers, regulators, legislators, solar providers, and DG advocates. This issue brief, prepared by Robert Borlick Associates, illustrates the subsidy created by current state net energy metering practices and reveals the need to modify these practices.
  • Summary of Electric Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Savings, Expenditures, and Budgets, March 2014
    Electric efficiency (EE) programs are cost-effective ways to transform how electricity is managed and used by households in the U.S. In 2012, electric utility customer-funded EE programs saved 126 TWh of electricity. U.S. electric utility customer-funded 2013 EE program budgets totaled about $7 billion, similar to 2012 levels. Actual expenditures totaled about $5.9 billion in 2012, a 3 percent increase over 2011.
  • Utility-Scale Smart Meter Deployments, August 2013
    The electric power sector has turned a corner when it comes to smart meters and other smart grid investments. Electric utilities continue upgrading their customers’ analog electric meters with digital ‘smart’ meters, according to the latest report from The Edison Foundation Institute for Electric Innovation. This report finds that about 46 million (or nearly 40 percent of) U.S. households has a smart meter as of August 2013. This is up from about 36 million (or nearly 33 percent of) households in May 2012.
  • State Electric Efficiency Regulatory Frameworks (July 2013)
    The Institute continues to track developments in performance incentives, cost recovery, and lost revenue recovery mechanisms for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. This resource summarizes these regulatory frameworks on a state-by-state basis and is updated periodically. Since its last update in July 2012, the Institute found that 32 states have some type of fixed-cost recovery mechanism to align utility fixed costs with investments in energy efficiency programs, up from 27 states in 2012.  Regarding performance incentives, 28 states currently have them in place, up from 23 states in 2012.
  • Forecast of On-Road Electric Transportation in the U.S. (2010-2035) (April 2013)
    This report provides a forecast of electricity use in transportation from 2010 to 2035 based on the progressive adoption of electric vehicles, primarily electric light duty and commercial vehicles. The report develops multiple scenarios to assess a range of transportation electrification opportunities from 5-35 million EVs on the road by 2035, depending on advances in battery technology.
  • Factors Affecting Electricity Consumption in the U.S. (2010-2035) (March 2013)
    In the coming decades, many factors will affect electricity consumption in the United States. This report examines the potential effects of three key factors on electricity consumption: 1) improvements to building energy codes and appliance/equipment efficiency standards; 2) growth in ratepayer-funded electric efficiency programs; and 3) electrification of the transportation.
  • Summary of Customer Funded Electric Efficiency Savings, Expenditures, and Budgets (2011 - 2012), March 2013
    This study, co-sponsored by the Institute, found that electric utility efficiency programs saved 107 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity in 2011, enough to power over 9.3 million U.S. homes for one year and avoid the generation of 75 million metric tons of carbon dioxide.  In addition, the study revealed that U.S. customer-funded electric efficiency expenditures totaled over $5.7 billion in 2011, an 18 percent increase from 2010 levels. 
  • Evaluation of Best-in-Class LED Reflector Lamps (January 2013)
    Using an innovative approach that factors in energy efficiency, light quality, cost, and consumer appeal, the Institute has teamed with TopTen USA and Ecova to provide consumers and utilities with a list of the top ten PAR30 and PAR38 LED reflector light bulbs on the market today. This report represents the completion of the Institute's February 2012 Best-in-Class LED Reflector Lamps Summary Report.
  • State Electric Efficiency Regulatory Frameworks (July 2012) 
    The Institute continues to track developments in performance incentives, cost recovery, and lost revenue recovery mechanisms for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. This resource summarizes these regulatory frameworks on a state-by-state basis and is updated periodically.
  • Utility-Scale Smart Meter Deployments, Plans, and Proposals (May 2012)
    Developed by the Institute, this resource shows utility-scale smart meter deployments by state and lists projects by utility. This edition includes data on completed meter installations as well as deployment plans and proposals. This update also includes data from some rural cooperative utilities in addition to data from investor-owned and large public utilities.
  • Best-in-Class LED Reflector Lamps Summary Report (February 2012)
    New efficiency standards for light bulbs are now in effect, but how do consumers and facility managers know which bulb is best?  The Institute commissioned the energy and sustainability management firm Ecova to determine the ten best LED reflector bulbs on the market today. This report summarizes the study's methodology and results
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  • Assessing the Role of Distributed Power Systems in the U.S. Power Sector (October 2011)
    One proposed method for improving the economic, environmental, and energy-security performance of the U.S. power sector is the adoption of distributed power systems (DPS), a combination of distributed generation and electricity storage technologies. In this inter-disciplinary paper, scholars from the Brookings Institution's Energy Security Initiative and the Hoover Institution's Energy Task Force evaluate the case for greater deployment of DPS
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  • Integrating Codes and Standards into Electric Utility Energy Efficiency Portfolios (August 2011)
    The opportunity for electric utilities to realize energy savings through building energy codes and appliance/equipment efficiency standards is significant. This report, prepared by the Institute for Electric Innovation, draws on lessons learned by utilities in the handful of states that have taken steps to promote utility involvement in the development of more efficient codes and standards and presents three broad approaches for incorporating codes and standards efforts into their energy efficiency portfolios
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  • The Costs and Benefits of Smart Meters for Residential Customers (July 2011)
    Despite rapid smart meter deployments across the nation, concerns about the prudence of smart meter investments remain among regulators, consumer advocates, and electric utilities. This study presents a framework for quantifying the costs and benefits of smart meters from a variety of perspectives and across a range of electric utility and customer types. The findings indicate that even with conservative assumptions regarding consumer engagement in technology, programs, and rate plans, smart meter deployments can yield positive net benefits for a wide range of customer and utility types
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  • Assessment of Electricity Savings in the U.S. Achievable through New Appliance/Equipment Efficiency Standards and Building Efficiency Codes (2010 - 2020) (December 2009)
    This report, prepared in conjunction with Global Energy Partners, discusses the effect of more stringent codes and standards on utility energy-efficiency activities. Depending on the specific codes and standards adopted, the results show savings from codes and standards ranging from 104 TWh to 293 TWh by 2020 relative to the EIA Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) baseline forecast, or equivalent to 2.5% to 7% savings in 2020 versus the baseline.
  • The Shifting Landscape of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in The U.S. (October 2009)
    This report from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory examines historical levels of funding for energy efficiency programs and provides projections of ratepayer-funded spending and savings through 2020.
  • State Regulatory Update: Smart Grid Cost Recovery (October 2009)
    This report from EEI outlines regulatory developments in cost recovery mechanisms for smart grid implementation. The overall trend is mostly toward adjustable tariff riders and surcharges, with others opting for different or additional approaches.
  • A National Assessment of Demand Response Potential (June 2009)
    This staff report from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC - external link) discusses the energy savings and economic potential of demand response in five and ten year horizons both nationally and on a state-by-state basis. In the most aggressive of four scenarios, the investigators find that peak load could be reduced by as much as 150 GW, or the equivalent of 2,000 peaking plants, by 2019.
  • Moving Toward Utility-Scale Deployment of Dynamic Pricing in Mass Markets (June 2009)
    This paper by Ahmad Faruqui and Sanem Sergici of the Brattle Group and Lisa Wood of the Institute for Electric Innovation highlights five dynamic pricing programs that have been implemented in the U.S. and surveys the progress toward deploying AMI. The authors define and discuss the rationale for dynamic pricing and assess the costs and benefits of dynamic pricing for customers, for utilities, and for independent system operators and regional transmission organizations.
  • Compilation of U.S. Energy Efficiency Program Profiles (June 2009)
    This document was created using input from Institute members, the Consortium for Energy Efficiency's Program Summaries, and ACEEE's Compendium of Champions. It contains the summaries of nearly 200 energy efficiency programs nationwide, along with links to online resources for each. The member version contains direct contacts within the utility for each program.
  • Jumpstarting Your EE Portfolio: Quick Start, Quick Return Energy Efficiency Programs (May 2009)
    This Institute for Electric Innovation whitepaper, prepared by E Source, outlines several replicable energy efficiency programs across the residential, commercial and industrial sectors that have delivered proven energy savings. The report provides key summary information about designing EE programs that can be quickly initiated and scaled up and contains a brief description of each general program type and information relevant to the program-development process.
  • Assessment of Achievable Potential from Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs in the U.S. (2010 - 2030) (January 2009)
    Executive Summary
    This extensive report from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) assesses the estimated range of savings attainable through programs that encourage the adoption of energy efficiency and demand response, taking into consideration technical, economic, and market constraints.
  • Ex-Post Load Impact Evaluation for PG&E Smart Rate Tariff  (December 2008)
    This report from PG&E contains load impact estimates associated with their voluntary, opt-in, critical peak pricing tariff, SmartRate.  The SmartRate tariff charges much higher prices during the peak period on up to 15 SmartDays during the summer in return for lower prices over a four month period from June through September. In 2008, SmartRate was only offered in PG&E’s Bakersfield region, where advanced meters had been installed and air conditioning saturation is very high. This report includes average reduction, average response, the impact and adoption by low-income households, and program performance.
  • Assessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering (December 2008)
    This third assessment of DR and AMI by FERC staff presents a comprehensive nationwide survey of demand response resources available to all customer classes.  Topics analyzed include: market penetration of advanced metering infrastructure, existing demand response and dynamic pricing programs, annual contribution of demand resources, potential for demand response, and regulatory barriers to improved customer participation in demand response and peak reduction programs. This report compares new survey data with that of the first report in 2006.
  • Understanding Cost Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs  (November 2008)
    This is a review of the various approaches in adopting cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency, the pros and cons of each approach, and a state-by-state review of their use. This paper is provided as assistance in meeting the ten implementation goals outlined in the Vision for 2025 document for NAPEE (see item below).
  • Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change (November 2008)
    This document was prepared by the Leadership Group of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) and identifies their vision that details the steps necessary to fully implement the goals identified in the original Action Plan document in 2006. The group identifies ten key implementation goals, as well as the considerable progress that can be made by 2025 if these goals are achieved.
  • Transforming America's Power Industry: The Investment Challenge 2010-2030 (November 2008)
    Executive Summary
    This report by The Brattle Group and sponsored by The Edison Foundation quantifies the total investment that would be required to maintain today’s high levels of reliable electric service across the United States through 2030, net of the investment that could be avoided through the implementation of more aggressive energy efficiency and demand response programs.
  • Trend Analysis: Administration of Energy Efficiency Programs (September 2008)
    This paper reviews some of the issues related to third-party energy efficiency administrators, including the different models, the pros and cons and the ongoing debates. Among the programs discussed are Efficiency Vermont, the Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU), and the program through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA).
  • State Regulatory Update: Energy Efficiency (September 2008)
    This report from the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) provides a review of regulatory decisions affecting energy efficiency programs. The report identifies and analyzes state regulatory trends based on these decisions, including trends related to: balancing energy efficiency and new generation and transmission capacity needs, regulatory frameworks for cost recovery, shareholder incentives, decoupling, measurement and evaluation tools, and advanced metering infrastructure.
  • State Legislative Update: Energy Efficiency (June 2008)
    This update from the Edison Electric Institute provides a summary and trend analysis of state legislative action on energy efficiency including analysis of implications and drivers of newly enacted legislation and pending bills.  Major trends identified include: a strong push towards higher efficiency standards for government buildings, increased gubernatorial initiative in enacting energy efficiency legislation, continuing utility use of third-party administrators for efficiency programs, the uncertainty of legislative implications of recession, and the increasing use of cap-and-trade proceeds to fund energy efficiency.
  • Highlights of EEI Member and Non-Member Residential/Commercial/Industrial Efficiency and Demand Response Programs for 2008 (March 2008)
    This Edison Electric Institute report provides an extensive (but not comprehensive) listing of active utility-sponsored programs promoting energy efficiency, conservation, and demand response for residential, commercial, and industrial customers.  Program listings are broken down alphabetically by sponsoring utility and include the state(s) served by the utility, generalized explanations of the programs, and current links to the programs’ websites for further information.
  • Quantifying the Benefits of Dynamic Pricing in the Mass Market (January 2008)
    Prepared by The Brattle Group for the Edison Electric Institute, this report lays out a methodology for quantifying the benefits to customers (i.e.,  bill savings) and to utilities (i.e.,. the capacity, energy and transmission and distribution benefits) resulting from  dynamic pricing programs such as Critical Peak Pricing, Peak-Time Rebate, and Time of Use rates.  The report also includes extensive appendices that review dynamic pricing pilot programs, examine impacts on low income customers, and explain the model’s elasticity estimates.

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  • Aligning Utility Incentives with Investment in Energy Efficiency (November 2007)
    This Report describes the financial effects on a utility of its spending on energy efficiency programs, how those effects could hinder aggressive and continual investment in energy efficiency by utilities, and how adoption of various regulatory mechanisms that can reduce or eliminate these obstacles.  This Report covers cost recovery, lost margin recovery, and performance incentives.  The Report also provides a number of examples of such methods drawn from the experience of utilities and states.  It is another report in the series aiming to assist utilities in the implementation of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency.
  • Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide (November 2007)
    This guide is part of a series of documents that aim to assist regulators and gas and electric utilities in the implementation of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE).  Through examples of best practices and consistent procedures, this report describes approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs.
  • Rising Utility Construction Costs: Sources and Impacts (September 2007)
    Given current industry trends of electricity rate increases, driven by high fuel and purchased-power costs, and the ongoing need to expand investment in generation, transmission, distribution, and environmental infrastructure, recent increases in the construction cost of utility infrastructure may have serious implications for future rates and utility investment plans.  This report, prepared for the Edison Foundation by The Brattle Group, documents the increases in construction costs for utility infrastructure, identifies the underlying causes of these increases, and explains how the increased costs will translate into higher rates that consumers might face as a result of required infrastructure investment.
  • Retail Electricity Pricing and Rate Design in Evolving Markets (July 2007)
    Prepared by Christensen Associates Energy Consulting for the Edison Electric Institute, this report reviews the critical role that efficient pricing and rate design can play in today’s electricity markets, and suggests practical strategies for overcoming historical barriers to implementing such rates.  The need to link wholesale and retail power markets as well as the introduction of advanced metering and control technologies has increased both the importance and the feasibility of efficient pricing.   This report provides a framework for efficient pricing and strategies for implementation.
  • Deciding on “Smart” Meters (September 2006)
    This guide, prepared by Plexus Research for the Edison Electric Institute, provides practical guidance on how to build a business case for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of advanced metering infrastructure applications.  The Report includes valuable lessons learned regarding the effective organization and management of AMI applications, and best practices for purchasing, installation, and integration.
  • Why Are Electricity Prices Increasing? An Industry-Wide Perspective (June 2006)
    Electricity price increases are occurring across the United States, among all types of electricity providers, to one degree or another. Prepared by The Brattle Group, this report examines the factors underlying the recent increases in electricity costs. It focuses primarily on cost changes experienced over the past five years and the projected trends over the next decade
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